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Electrolyzer Basics

Membrane Properties and Characterization for Zero-Gap CO2 Electrolyzers
Zero-gap electrolyzers are similar to fuel cells in design because the heart of the electrolyzer consists of two electrodes pressed against a membrane. These electrolyzers are called “zero-gap” because there is no gap between the cathodes, anodes, and the electrolyte. This design decreases the distance for ion transport because the layers are pressed or bonded together. The zero-gap CO2 electrolyzers can achieve high current densities (≥100 mA/cm2) by delivering gaseous CO2 to the cathode. The efficiency of these electrolyzers depends upon the catalysts used, the operating conditions, and o..
Carbon Dioxide Capture and Conversion
An Introduction to CO2 Capture and Conversion Electrochemical devices that convert CO2 into fuels and valuable compounds have been undergoing extensive research for over a decade now. The research in this area has been driven by the desire to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse emissions. As you are probably aware, the majority of the world’s energy used for transportation, industrial, and residential uses are made from coal, petroleum, and natural gas. An Increase in CO2 Emissions As we are all aware, the consumption of fossil fuels has led to an increase in C..
An Introduction to Ion Exchange Membranes and Salt Splitting

Ion-exchanges membranes (IEMs) have many applications beyond fuel cells -- they can also be used to synthesize all types of compounds that are used in various industries. The most popular IEMs consist of polymeric resins with charged functional groups based upon their ion selectivity, they are referred to as anion-exchange (AEM) and...

Anion Exchange Membranes (AEMs)

Anion exchange membranes (AEMS) have been an active area of research for over a decade. AEMS can be used for fuel cells, redox flow batteries, electrolyzers, and even water desalination membranes. The electrolyte layer is the “heart” of electrochemical cells such as fuel cells, batteries, and because it transports ions from...

The Use of Hydrogen as an Energy Storage System

Many countries around the world have been diligently working towards implementing renewable energy plants for over a decade. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), renewables in the form of hydropower, bioenergy, wind and solar will account for 18% of primary energy by 2035. Since 2013, more electrical grid capacity was added...

Chemical Hydrides

Fuel cells often use compressed hydrogen as the fuel; however, many other hydrogen sources can be used with fuel cells. Chemical hydride storage is an alternative method of producing hydrogen via a chemical reaction. These reactions involve chemical hydrides, water, and alcohols. The chemical reactions are not reversible, and the byproducts must be discarded. Hydrogen fuel can also...

Metal Hydrides

Fuel cells usually use compressed hydrogen as the fuel, but there are many other types of fuels that can be used. The type of fuel used depends upon the fuel cell application. Fuels are often in their final form before entering the fuel cell; however, certain fuel cell types can be processed on the inside of the fuel cell. Alternative fuel types are...

Explanation of the Thermodynamics Behind Fuel Cell & Electrolyzer Design

Thermodynamics is the study of energy changing from one form to another. Many predictions can be made using thermodynamic equations, and these are essential for understanding fuel cell and electrolyzer performance because these devices transform chemical energy into...

Introduction to Electrolyzers

Electrolyzers use electricity to break water into hydrogen and oxygen. The electrolysis of water occurs through an electrochemical reaction that does not require external components or moving parts. It is very reliable and can produce ultra-pure hydrogen (> 99.999%) in a non-polluting manner when...