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PiperION Anion Exchange Membrane, 15 microns, Mechanically Reinforced

Product Code: 73800004

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Versogen's 15 micrometers thick mechanically reinforced anion exchange membrane sheets are currently offered in 5x5cm, and 10x10cm sizes. PiperION mechanically reinforced AEMs are manufactured from the functionalized poly(aryl piperidinium) resin material and microporous ePTFE reinforcement in order to yield an AEM with excellent mechanical durability and reduced overall swelling or minimal physical dimension change.  Mechanically reinforced membranes can sometimes be called as composite membranes.  In terms of mechanical robustness, mechanically reinforced PiperION AEMs would provide higher performance compared to self-supporting PiperION AEM counterparts.  In terms of ionic conductivity, since part of the mechanical reinforced membranes are composed of inert ePTFE, their ionic conductivities would be slightly lower than the self-supporting PiperION membranes of the same thickness.

The ionically conductive part of the mechanically reinforced PiperION AEMs are manufactured from the functionalized poly(aryl piperidinium) polymer.  The general chemical structure of the poly(aryl piperidinium) resin material is provided below.

Benefits of Mechanically Reinforced PiperION AEMs:

-ePTFE based mechanical reinforcement provides excellent mechanical strength
-Low swelling and reduced physical dimension change
-Excellent chemical stability in caustic and acidic environments (pH range of 1-14)
-Ultra-thin membranes with superb performance for various alkaline fuel cell, alkaline electrolyzer, direct ammonia fuel cells, and other relevant electrochemical technologies

Pre-treatment protocol:

PiperION membranes are shipped in the non-hydroxide form ( more specifically in the bicarbonate form) and the proper pretreatment protocol needs to be followed in order to convert it to the desired anionic form.

For standard alkaline fuel cell / electrolysis applications:

Allow the membrane to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without a cover sheet before use.

For hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell or hydroxide exchange electrolysis applications or any other application that requires the hydroxide ion transfer across the membrane, the membrane should be converted from bicarbonate form into OH- form for optimal conductivity.

To convert the membrane to OH- form, place the membrane in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M NaOH or KOH for 1 h at room temperature. After 1 h, replace the solution with fresh 0.5 M NaOH or KOH and allow the membrane to soak for 1 h at room temperature again. After the two soaks, rinse the membrane with DI water (pH ~ 7). Minimize exposure to ambient air, as the CO2 can exchange back into the membrane causing the membrane to convert back to bicarbonate form.  The reaction between CO2 and hydroxide ions is purely chemical and it will readily happen if the OH- form of the membrane is exposed to an environment that has CO2 (such as ambient air, etc.).  This conversion can be completely eliminated by simply doing the conversion and testing in a CO2-free drybox environment.

For electrochemical reduction of CO2 or CO or in CO2 electrolysis applications:

Allow the membrane to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without a cover sheet before use.

The PiperION membrane is shipped in the bicarbonate form.  If you are working with bicarbonate electrolytes in your setup, then there is no need to pretreat the membrane and it can be used in the as received form.

If you are working with carbonate electrolytes, then the PiperIon membrane needs to be converted to carbonate form.  In order to achieve this, simply submerge the membrane in an aqueous solution of 0.1 - 0.5 M sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate for 12 h at room temperature. After then, replace the solution with fresh 0.1 - 0.5 M sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate and allow the membrane to soak for 12 h at room temperature again. After the two-three soaks, rinse the membrane with DI water (pH ~ 7). 

Instead of bicarbonate or carbonate electrolytes, if you are using KOH or NaOH type pure alkaline electrolytes in your CO2 reduction experiments, then you can simply follow the "For standard alkaline fuel cell / electrolysis applications" protocol for converting the membrane to OH- form.

For other electrochemical (electrodialysis, desalination, electro-electrodialysis, reverse electrodialysis, acid recovery, salt splitting, etc.) and non-electrochemical applications:

Allow the membrane to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without a cover sheet before use.

Prior to the assembly of the membrane into the electrochemical device or setup, the membrane should be converted into the anionic form that is relevant for the intended application.  For example, if the application is requiring the Cl- anions to be transferred through the membrane, then this anion exchange membrane needs to be converted into the Cl- form.  In order to convert this membrane into Cl- form, it needs to be submerged into a 0.1 to 0.5 M salt solution of NaCl or KCl (dissolved in deionized water) for a period of 12-24 hours and then rinsed with deionized water to remove the excess salt from the membrane surface.  Or if the intended application is requiring to transfer sulfate anions across the membrane, then PiperION AEM needs to be converted into the sulfate form prior to its assembly into the cell.  A neutral salt solution of 0.1 to 0.5M Na2SO4 or K2SO4 would usually be sufficient to achieve the full conversion of membrane into the sulfate form after fully submerging the membrane into the salt solution for 12-24 hours at room temperature.  It is always suggested to repeat the submersion process for 2-3 times in order to achieve close to 100% conversion and then rinse it with copious amount of deionized water.

If you have any concerns about storage, chemical stability, pre-treatment or before proceeding, please feel free to contact us for further information.

Scientific Literature for Various Use of Versogen Membranes and Dispersion Products:

The article by Wang et al. entitled "Poly(aryl piperidinium) membranes and ionomers for hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells" is considered to be an excellent source that describes the polymer chemistry and fuel cell operation of PiperION membranes with hydrogen and CO2-free air reactants at a temperature of 95 °C.  This article also investigates the ionic conductivity, chemical stability, mechanical robustness, gas separation, and selective solubility aspects of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs.

The article by Wang et al. entitled "High-Performance Hydroxide Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells THrough Optimization of Relative Humidity, Backpressure, and Catalyst Selection" is considered to be an excellent source that describes the polymer chemistry and fuel cell operation of PiperION membranes under different operational parameters in order to eliminate the anode flooding and cathode drying out issues in order to achieve a blanced water management.  With further optimization on the catalyst, a peak power density of 1.89 W/cm2 in H2/O2 and 1.31 W/cm2 in H2/Air have been achieved.  

The article by Luo et al. entitled "Structure-Transport Relationships of Poly(aryl piperidinium) Anion-Exchange Membranes: Effect of Anions and Hydration" is considered to be an excellent source that describes the transfer of different anions across AEMs that are manufactured from poly(aryl piperidinium) resin.  Nanostructure, hydration or water uptake as a function of the counter anion, phase-separation in regars of its polymer morphology, anion conductivity as a function of water content (vapor or liquid) and anion radius are some of the other aspects that have been discussed in this publication.

The article by Zhao et al. entitled "An Efficient Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell for Affordable Carbon-Neutral Transportation" is considered to be an excellent source that describes economics of hydrogen, methanol, and ammonia as fuel for transportation applications, performance of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs for direct ammonia fuel cell at 80 °C. 

The article by Archrai et al. entitled "A Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell with a KOH-Free Anode Feed Generating 180 mW cm-2 at 120 °C" investigates the electrochemical performance of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs for direct ammonia fuel cell at 120 °C. 

The article by Endrodi et al. entitled "High carbonate ion conductance of a robust PiperION membrane allows industrial current density and conversion in a zero-gap carbon dioxide electrolyzer cell" investigates the electrochemical performance of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs for electrochemical reduction of CO2 or carbon dioxide electrolyzer applications. This study demonstrated that partial current densities of greater than 1 A/cm2 can be achieved while maintaining high conversion (25-40%), selectivity (up to 90%), and low cell voltage (2.6-3.4 V).

Electrochemical performance of anion exchange membranes would usually depend on the design of the electrochemical testing hardware, operational parameters, membrane thickness, catalyst loading and type, gas diffusion layer thickness and type, the way the MEA/CCM manufactured and assembled, etc. Fuel Cell Store does not provide any warranties or guarantees for the performances obtained by other researchers.

Please note that a current lead time of 2 - 4 weeks is to be expected.

PiperION Membranes
Thickness 15 micrometers
Basis Weight Undisclosed
Tensile Strength Undisclosed
Young's Modulus Undisclosed
Elongation at Break (%) Undisclosed
Specific Gravity Undisclosed
Ion Exchange Capacity Undisclosed
Conductivity Undisclosed
Swelling Ratio Undisclosed
Water Uptake Undisclosed
Ionic Form and Type Anionic (Bicarbonate)

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