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PiperION Anion Exchange Resin

Product Code: 74820001

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Versogen's PiperION resin material is a functionalized resin material in the powder form.  This powder can be used to manufacture your own PiperION dispersion (also called ionomer).  Dispersions or ionomers are one of the critical components of achieving superb performance with PiperION membranes.  Dispersions are usually used to prepare the anode and cathode catalyst inks or slurries.  Presence of a dispersion within the catalyst layer will significantly enhance the ionic conduction phenomenon in the catalyst layer, and hence, better electrochemical performances.  Dispersions can also be used to manufacture the self-supporting membranes and mechanically reinforced membranes too.  PiperION dispersion belongs to the anion exchange category of dispersion products and should be used for applications where the transfer of anions are critical for the electrochemical performance.

PiperION resin is manufactured from the functionalized poly(aryl piperidinium) polymer.  The general chemical structure of the poly(aryl piperidinium) resin material is provided below.  This resin powder is currently offered in 0.8 grams per bottle.

Benefits of PiperION Anion Exchange Resin Product:

-Excellent chemical durability and stability in the pH range of 1-14 due to rigid ether-bond-free aryl backbone
-Long lifetime operational capability in a wide temperature range
-Manufacturing of anode and cathode catalyst layers with superb ionic conductivity
-Manufacturing of self-supporting or mechanically reinforced membranes

Pre-treatment protocol:

The usual way of using an anion exchange resin material is to dissolve it in a proper solvent system in order to have dissolved polymer solution for manufacturing other relevant products.  PiperION dispersion (or any other dispersion) would usually be used in the as-received form and the products generated from the dispersion material would then be converted into the desired ionic form.

For standard alkaline fuel cell / electrolysis applications:

Any product (such as catalyzed gas diffusion layers, gas diffusion electrodes, MEAs, CCMs) that contains the PiperION dispersion should follow the protocol below if it is going to be used for standard alkaline fuel cell / electrolysis applications in order to convert the ionically conductive PiperION from bicarbonate form to the hydroxide form.

If the manufactured product from PiperION dispersion is a membrane, then allow the membrane to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without a cover sheet prior to its submersion.  If the product is a CCM (without GDLs), then allow the CCM to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without any cover films or backing films prior to its submersion.  If the product is an MEA (meaning GDLs are permanently bonded to the membrane), the conversion of the ionically conductive parts needs to be carried inside a setup where the MEA is being restrained or under mechanical clamping force and it is not advised to remove the MEA after the conversion in order to prevent delamination of the GDLs from the membrane surface. If the manufactured product from PiperION dispersion is a catalyzed GDL or GDE, then the submersion step can be done immediately.

For hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell or hydroxide exchange electrolysis applications or any other application that requires the hydroxide ion transfer, the product should be converted from bicarbonate form into OH- form for optimal conductivity.

To convert the manufactured product to OH- form, place the product in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M NaOH or KOH for 1 h at room temperature. After 1 h, replace the solution with fresh 0.5 M NaOH or KOH and allow the membrane to soak for 1 h at room temperature again. After the two soaks, rinse the product with DI water (pH ~ 7). Minimize exposure to ambient air, as the CO2 can exchange back into the membrane causing the membrane to convert back to bicarbonate form.  The reaction between CO2 and hydroxide ions is purely chemical and it will readily happen if the OH- form of the manufactured product is exposed to an environment that has CO2 (such as ambient air, etc.).  This conversion can be completely eliminated by simply doing the conversion and testing in a CO2-free drybox environment.

For electrochemical reduction of CO2 or CO or in CO2 electrolysis applications:

Any product (such as catalyzed gas diffusion layers, gas diffusion electrodes, MEAs, CCMs) that contains the PiperION dispersion should follow the protocol below if it is going to be used for electrochemical reduction of CO2 or CO2 electrolysis applications in order to convert the ionically conductive PiperION from bicarbonate form to another anionic form.

If the manufactured product from PiperION dispersion is a membrane, then allow the membrane to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without a cover sheet prior to its submersion.  If the product is a CCM (without GDLs), then allow the CCM to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without any cover films or backing films prior to its submersion.  If the product is an MEA (meaning GDLs are permanently bonded to the membrane), the conversion of the ionically conductive parts needs to be carried inside a setup where the MEA is being restrained or under mechanical clamping force and it is not advised to remove the MEA after the conversion in order to prevent delamination of the GDLs from the membrane surface. If the manufactured product from PiperION dispersion is a catalyzed GDL or GDE, then the submersion step can be done immediately.

The PiperION dispersion is shipped in the bicarbonate form.  If you are working with bicarbonate electrolytes in your setup, then there is no need to pretreat the product manufactured from PiperION dispersion and it can be used in the as received form.

If you are working with carbonate electrolytes, then the product manufactured from PiperIon dispersion needs to be converted to carbonate form.  In order to achieve this, simply submerge the product in an aqueous solution of 0.1 - 0.5 M sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate for 12 h at room temperature. After then, replace the solution with fresh 0.1 - 0.5 M sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate and allow the manufactured product to soak for 12 h at room temperature again. After the two-three soaks, rinse the manufactured product with DI water (pH ~ 7). 

Instead of bicarbonate or carbonate electrolytes, if you are using KOH or NaOH type pure alkaline electrolytes in your CO2 reduction experiments, then you can simply follow the "For standard alkaline fuel cell / electrolysis applications" protocol for converting the manufactured product to OH- form.

For other electrochemical (electrodialysis, desalination, electro-electrodialysis, reverse electrodialysis, acid recovery, salt splitting, etc.) and non-electrochemical applications:

Any product (such as catalyzed gas diffusion layers, gas diffusion electrodes, MEAs, CCMs) that contains the PiperION dispersion should follow the protocol below if it is going to be used for other electrochemical applications in order to convert the ionically conductive PiperION from bicarbonate form to another desired anionic form.

If the manufactured product from PiperION dispersion is a membrane, then allow the membrane to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without a cover sheet prior to its submersion.  If the product is a CCM (without GDLs), then allow the CCM to sit at ambient conditions for 1 hr without any cover films or backing films prior to its submersion.  If the product is an MEA (meaning GDLs are permanently bonded to the membrane), the conversion of the ionically conductive parts needs to be carried inside a setup where the MEA is being restrained or under mechanical clamping force and it is not advised to remove the MEA after the conversion in order to prevent delamination of the GDLs from the membrane surface. If the manufactured product from PiperION dispersion is a catalyzed GDL or GDE, then the submersion step can be done immediately.

Prior to the assembly of the manufactured product from PiperION dispersion into the electrochemical device or setup, the product should be converted into the anionic form that is relevant for the intended application.  For example, if the application is requiring the Cl- anions to be transferred through the manufactured product, then it needs to be converted into the Cl- form.  In order to convert it into Cl- form, it needs to be submerged into a 0.1 to 0.5 M salt solution of NaCl or KCl (dissolved in deionized water) for a period of 12-24 hours and then rinsed with deionized water to remove the excess salt from the product surface.  Or if the intended application is requiring to transfer sulfate anions across the manufactured product, then it needs to be converted into the sulfate form prior to its assembly into the cell.  A neutral salt solution of 0.1 to 0.5M Na2SO4 or K2SO4 would usually be sufficient to achieve the full conversion of it into the sulfate form after fully submerging the product into the salt solution for 12-24 hours at room temperature.  It is always suggested to repeat the submersion process for 2-3 times in order to achieve close to 100% conversion and then rinse it with copious amount of deionized water.

If you have any concerns about storage, chemical stability, pre-treatment or before proceeding, please feel free to contact us for further information.

Scientific Literature for Various Use of Versogen Membranes and Dispersion Products:

The article by Wang et al. entitled "Poly(aryl piperidinium) membranes and ionomers for hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells" is considered to be an excellent source that describes the polymer chemistry and fuel cell operation of PiperION membranes with hydrogen and CO2-free air reactants at a temperature of 95 °C.  This article also investigates the ionic conductivity, chemical stability, mechanical robustness, gas separation, and selective solubility aspects of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs.

The article by Wang et al. entitled "High-Performance Hydroxide Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells THrough Optimization of Relative Humidity, Backpressure, and Catalyst Selection" is considered to be an excellent source that describes the polymer chemistry and fuel cell operation of PiperION membranes under different operational parameters in order to eliminate the anode flooding and cathode drying out issues in order to achieve a blanced water management.  With further optimization on the catalyst, a peak power density of 1.89 W/cm2 in H2/O2 and 1.31 W/cm2 in H2/Air have been achieved.  

The article by Luo et al. entitled "Structure-Transport Relationships of Poly(aryl piperidinium) Anion-Exchange Membranes: Effect of Anions and Hydration" is considered to be an excellent source that describes the transfer of different anions across AEMs that are manufactured from poly(aryl piperidinium) resin.  Nanostructure, hydration or water uptake as a function of the counter anion, phase-separation in regars of its polymer morphology, anion conductivity as a function of water content (vapor or liquid) and anion radius are some of the other aspects that have been discussed in this publication.

The article by Zhao et al. entitled "An Efficient Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell for Affordable Carbon-Neutral Transportation" is considered to be an excellent source that describes economics of hydrogen, methanol, and ammonia as fuel for transportation applications, performance of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs for direct ammonia fuel cell at 80 °C. 

The article by Archrai et al. entitled "A Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell with a KOH-Free Anode Feed Generating 180 mW cm-2 at 120 °C" investigates the electrochemical performance of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs for direct ammonia fuel cell at 120 °C. 

The article by Endrodi et al. entitled "High carbonate ion conductance of a robust PiperION membrane allows industrial current density and conversion in a zero-gap carbon dioxide electrolyzer cell" investigates the electrochemical performance of poly(aryl piperidinium) based AEMs for electrochemical reduction of CO2 or carbon dioxide electrolyzer applications. This study demonstrated that partial current densities of greater than 1 A/cm2 can be achieved while maintaining high conversion (25-40%), selectivity (up to 90%), and low cell voltage (2.6-3.4 V).

Electrochemical performance of products that contain PiperION (or any other dispersion as a matter of fact) would usually depend on the design of the electrochemical testing hardware, operational parameters, membrane thickness, catalyst loading and type, gas diffusion layer thickness and type, the way the MEA/CCM manufactured and assembled, etc. Fuel Cell Store does not provide any warranties or guarantees for the performances obtained by other researchers.

Please note that a current lead time of 2 - 4 weeks is to be expected.

PiperION Dispersions/Powder
Ionomer Type Anion Exchange Resin Powder (also known as anion exchange resin powder)
Polymer Type Hydrocarbon polymer based on poly(aryl piperidinium) chemistry
Solvent None
Concentration 100%
Functional Group Piperidinium cation
Counter Ion Bicarbonate
Form Fine powder

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