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Xion BPM-Nafion-1000-Durion-G2-75 composite bipolar membrane consists of Durion G2 based anion exchange layer (AEL) and Nafion 1000 based cation exchange layer (CEL). This composite bipolar membrane has a thickness of 75 micrometers. Durion G2 anion exchange resin is based on polyphenylene backbone with a hybridized imidazole side chain which functions as the functional groups for anion transfer within the AEL. Nafion 1000 resin is based on the perfluorosulfonic acid composition with long side chain and it has sulfonic acid as its functional groups for cation transfer within the CEL.
A composite bipolar membrane is usually comprised of a mechanical reinforcement that is sandwiched between a cation exchange layer and an anion exchange layer. Cation exchange layer (CEL) is formed by the cation exchange dispersion on one side of the mechanical reinforcement. An anion exchange layer (AEL), on the other hand, is formed from the use of an anion exchange dispersion on the opposite side of the mechanical reinforcement. A composite bipolar membrane can also be called as composite bilayer membrane. The microporous e-PTFE based reinforcement layer is integrated into the structure of the bipolar membrane to provide enhanced mechanical properties, reduced swelling, and increasing the interface area between the CEL and AEL.
Bipolar membranes are usually used for water splitting reactions in various electrochemical applications. At the interface of AEL and CEL, water molecules are dissociated into OH- and H+ ions when exceeding a potential difference of approximately 0.8 V. The CEL must be directed towards the cathode, the AEL must be directed towards the anode, and the mode of operation has to be reverse biased in order to promote the water dissociation reaction. Under the reverse biased mode, the electrons would be transferred from anode side to cathode side. Water molecules would naturally diffuse into the intermediate layer between AEL and CEL due to presence of hydrophilic domains within those respective layers and generation of H+ and OH- ions would occur as a result of water splitting reaction. H+ ions will diffuse out from the CEL layer and migrate into the cathode chamber. OH- ions, on the other hand, would diffuse out from the AEL layer and migrate into the anode chamber. The electro-catalytically forced water dissociation produces – in contrast to the classical electrolysis of water – no reaction gases. Therefore, one Mol of OH- and H+ – ions can be achieved at an energy value of approximately 22 Wh (Electrolysis: approximately 55 Wh per Mol).
These are developmental products that are currently being offered to researchers for their various electrochemical applications and hence, the amount of experimental data is is scarce and Xergy team hopes that customers purchasing these products would provide some feedback in order to further improve their electrochemical performances.
Xion BPM-Nafion-1000-Durion-G2-75 composite bipolar membrane is easy to use and expected to deliver the following specs:
• Low water splitting voltage (< 1.2 V at 100 mA cm-2 in 0.5 M NaCl at 25°C)*
• Excellent mechanical properties at low thickness (75 μm)
* The values provided in this section are estimated values that are based on the performance of other commercial bipolar membranes.
Xion BPM-Nafion-1000-Durion-G2-75 composite bipolar membrane features:
• Applications: Water splitting, electrodialysis, production of acids and alkali from a corresponding salt which is also known as salt splitting reaction,
• Bipolar Exchange Membrane
• Stability range (pH) at 25 ºC: 1 - 14
• Thickness: 75 micrometers (nominal thickness)
Reverse Bias and Forward Bias Operation Modes with Composite Bipolar Membranes:
Figure (a) provides the schematic representation of the composite bipolar membrane under reverse bias mode, where first the junction is depleted of ions and then water dissociates into H+ and OH- ions. Figure (b) describes the operation of a composite bipolar membrane under forward bias mode, where H+ and OH- ions are transported into the bipoplar membrane through their respective layers and water is formed at the bipolar junction (also called as bipolar interface or interface layer). AEL stands for anion exchanger layer, CEL stands for cation exchange layer, IL stands for interface layer.
[This descriptive figure/image is from Pärnamäe et. al (January 2021), article entitled as "Bipolar membranes: A review on principles, latest developments, and applications", and can be found here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2020.118538 ]
Scientific Literature for Various Use of Composite Bipolar and Ion Exchange Membranes:
The article by Pärnamäe et al. entitled "Bipolar membranes: A review on principles, latest developments, and applications" is considered to be an excellent source that describes the operating principle of bipolar membranes, provides a very through analysis of the recent progress in the area of bipolar membranes and use of such membranes in various applications.
The article by Jaroszek and Dydo entitled " Ion-exchange membranes in chemical synthesis - a review" is considered to be an excellent source for how to properly use a composite bipolar and other ion exchange membranes for various chemical synthesis reactions via electrodialysis, 2-chamber membrane electrolysis, 3-chamber electro-electrodialysis, 4-chamber electrodialysis metathesis, electrodialysis with bipolar membrane, electrodeionization, ion substitution electrodialysis, Donnan dialysis, etc.
Please note that a current lead time of 2 - 3 weeks is to be expected.
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