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How Ion Exchange Works
In nature, the majority of gases, liquids, and solids are not charged (in the neutral form). Ion exchange, where free ions are exchanged for different ions, occurs when there is an open network structure to carry the ions through it. There are many natural and man-made mediums that are ion exchangers, including solids, liquids, and gases. The medium needs to be in contact with the ion exchanger and these two entities exchange some of its ions for similarly charged ions. The medium is often a solid ion exchanger in contact with an aqueous solution or gas. If you recall from chemistry, there ..
Membrane Properties and Characterization for Zero-Gap CO2 Electrolyzers
Zero-gap electrolyzers are similar to fuel cells in design because the heart of the electrolyzer consists of two electrodes pressed against a membrane. These electrolyzers are called “zero-gap” because there is no gap between the cathodes, anodes, and the electrolyte. This design decreases the distance for ion transport because the layers are pressed or bonded together. The zero-gap CO2 electrolyzers can achieve high current densities (≥100 mA/cm2) by delivering gaseous CO2 to the cathode. The efficiency of these electrolyzers depends upon the catalysts used, the operating conditions, and o..
An Introduction to Ion Exchange Membranes and Salt Splitting

Ion-exchanges membranes (IEMs) have many applications beyond fuel cells -- they can also be used to synthesize all types of compounds that are used in various industries. The most popular IEMs consist of polymeric resins with charged functional groups based upon their ion selectivity, they are referred to as anion-exchange (AEM) and...

Anion Exchange Membranes (AEMs)

Anion exchange membranes (AEMS) have been an active area of research for over a decade. AEMS can be used for fuel cells, redox flow batteries, electrolyzers, and even water desalination membranes. The electrolyte layer is the “heart” of electrochemical cells such as fuel cells, batteries, and because it transports ions from...

The Fuel Cell Electrolyte Layer for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

The electrolyte layer is essential for a fuel cell to work properly. In low-temperature fuel cells, when the fuel in the fuel cell travels to the catalyst layer, the fuel molecule gets broken into protons (H+) and electrons. The electrons travel to the external circuit to power the load, and the hydrogen proton (ions) travel through the electrolyte until it reaches...